Music on the Radio-Belgrade (1945-1990): Between the Politics and the Market
This paper discusses the political and the economical influences on the positions of "neofolk" music on the Radio-Belgrade 1945-1990. "Neofolk" music was a popular genre which developed as an imitation of "traditional" Serbian folk music combined with the elements of pop music, and from its beginning it was firmly integrated into the processes of production, distribution and consumption specific not to folk, but to popular/mass culture. The Yugoslavian establishment much criticized this genre and proclaimed it as a kitsch, because it supposedly didn't fit to the officially promoted "educational" concept of culture in socialism. The Party claimed that "neofolk" music was opposite to social and cultural values of socialism, and many times tried to restricte its spreading and affirmation. On the contrary, "neofolk" music became very popular and profitable, especially in Serbia, and despite of its political "impropriety", it got a very significant status in the industry of popular music. In fact, after the periods of strong political repressions, the Yugoslavian community began to assimilate many characteristics of the Western capitalistic market and industry, which conditioned the expansion of commercialism in Yugoslavia since the middle of the seventies. In such a context, markets' principles became more relevant than politicals' ones, and the extremely utilizing of "neofolk" music was the most representative symptom of that change. These processes could be very clearly detected by analyzing the status of "neofolk" music on the Radio-Belgrade. As a public broadcasting service and as a media which had an enormous influence and reputation in Serbian society, the Radio-Belgrade had to propagate the officially concept of culture and to avoid "improper" contents as "neofolk" music was. But in the context of increasing commercialism, the Radio-Belgrade's programme policy was much "deregulated", and the growing affirmation of "neofolk" music was one of the decisive causes in this process.
Jelena Arnautović was born in 1981. in Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia. She played piano in music school Stevan Mokranjac in Belgrade, and she graduated musicology at the Faculty of Music Art in Belgrade, with the master-paper Popular music on Radio Belgrade (1945-1990): between politics and markets. On August 2008. she was engaged as a member of the Art Commission and as a music critic at the International Competition of Chamber Choirs in Kragujevac. On December 2008. she read a paper about composer Milan Ristic at the Round Table organized by the Composers Association of Serbia. In September 2009. she published the paper Nicolas Burriaud in the bookFigure in motion. Modern Western aesthetics, philosophy and theory of art (ed. by Miško Šuvaković, Aleš Erjavec). In his scientific work she does researches in study of popular culture and media.
Currently she is attending the second year of PhD studies of musicology at the Faculty of Music Art in Belgrade. Since October 2008. she works as an assistant of music history at the Faculty of Arts in Kosovska Mitrovica, and as music editor on national station Radio-Television Serbia. She is a member of the American Musicological Society, the Composers Association of Serbia and the Association of music and ballet pedagogues in Serbia.
Schoenberg and the Overtones: Evolving the Ear, Shaping the History
In the opening sections of his Harmonielehre (1911) Arnold Schoenberg proposed a theory in which overtones series were conceived as a procreative principle of music history. Prior to the Schoenberg's study, an array of prominent German music theorist had ruminated on the role of the overtones in the ground rules of music harmony. Schoenberg differed from his predecessors as he envisioned the implications of the overtones series not as a static set of rules, but as an evolving principle that shapes the advance of music. Schoenberg viewed evolution of the music as an incremental process of unveiling the overtones that had lain fallow. What triggers this process is the enhancement in human hearing ability, which develops through engaged listening and leads toward appreciating more distant, recondite overtones. In the time of Schoenberg Harmonielehre, in the Viennese modernist circles, the evolutionistic paradigm was already present from the turn of the century, most saliently in the writings of Schoenberg's acquaintance and fellow artist, architect Adolf Loos. This alliance between the modernism and evolutionism served to assert new customs in Viennese world of art: the ideal of engaged listening leading to evolutional step-forward was tied with changes in the way how music was listened to and appreciated. Schoenberg further used his theory as a benchmark of compositional rectitude, both vindicating his achievements in 'pantonality' and decrying what he saw as pernicious aberrations in music of some of his contemporaries. Shaping some of his later writings, as well as those of his votary Anton Webern, Schoenberg's overtones theory has been markedly influential and can still be discerned as one of the underlying notions in our understanding of music and its historical development.
Srđan Atanasovski (1983, Kumanovo, Macedonia) is a Ph.D. student of musicology and teaching assistant at the University of Arts in Belgrade. He works as a music critic and an associate at the Channel 3 of Radio Belgrade, and has been engaged on projects at Cultural Centre of Belgrade. He published his papers in journal Mokranjac and in student proceedings of the Musicology department, and participated in several international conferences. Presently, he is working on the role of music practices in construction of national territory. Special interests also include sociology of music and eighteenth-century music studies. In 2009 he has been awarded with scholarship by People's Office of the President of the Republic for his academic achievements and social engagement.
Vrednostni sistemi estetskih realnosti
Po V. Galileiu ima vsaka estetska realnost svoj vrednostni sistem, ga izbira, opredeljuje in omejuje. Sámo estetsko realnost definira njen referenčni sistem; sistem, v katerega vstopa in v katerem si riše svoje koordinate. Vsakokratno preseganje njegovih meja spremlja postavljanje novih razmerij in odnosov, ki v časovnih in družbenih premenah nosijo s sabo spremembe zunanjih determinant, z njimi notranjih silnic in s tem estetske paradigme. Vendarle se njena navidez še tako radikalna menjava v podrobni razčlembi ne vzpostavlja nič drugače kot le zasuk paradigme v relaciji do izhodiščnega sistema. Tako pomeni vselej le potrjevanje temeljnih referenčnih strukturnih odnosov, ki določajo referenčni sistem, v njem estetsko realnost in s tem postavljajo temeljni estetski vrednostni sistem. Prispevek se bo posvečal soočenju in primerjavi spreminjajočih se estetskih realnosti v kolebanju med čutno določljivostjo in racionalnim spoznanjem, med estetsko kontemplacijo in senzualnim užitkom.
Matjaž Barbo je od 1991 zaposlen na Oddelku za muzikologijo filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. V letih 2000-04 je bil predstojnik Oddelka, v letih 2004-08 pa predsednik Slovenskega muzikološkega društva. Raziskovalno se osredotoča na preučevanje mesta glasbe v okviru slovenskega kulturnega prostora, vse od 18. stoletja do danes. Poleg tega se ukvarja z glasbenoestetskimi in glasbenosociološkimi temami. Od 1998 je glavni urednik mednarodne znanstvene muzikološke revije Muzikološki zbornik / Musicological Annual.
Mario Vieira de Carvalho
Musical Autonomy as a Referential System
In this paper I argue that the so called "musical autonomy" is a "referential system" that increasingly emerged in the European culture from the "invention" of notated composition and culminated with a change of paradigm in the structure and the function of musical communication (at the 18th century). This change of paradigm has structural connections with the development of the market and of a bourgeois public sphere (Habermas). Making music and/or listening to music did not become in this way separated from "extra-musical" systems of social communication. Instead, music continued to be in itself social action and social communication. What changed was the consequence of the emergence of a new "referential system", in which the process of musical signification - through the circulation of printed music, its discussion in the press, its performance and reception as a "text" with very different and undetermined "references" (both expressive and contextual) - gradually became more complex. This new "referential system" could be described as education or Bildung, in which music began to play a so important role as (or even a more important role than) the other arts, philosophy or science. That is to say: all aspects of human and social experience became potentially object of music and of a listening culture such as they could be object of other (philosophic, artistic, scientific, even religious) systems of communication. Sharing human and social experience also by means of music in itself corresponds to a new function, and not to an absence of function. However, the historical development of the market, which decisively contributed to the rise of the so-called "musical autonomy", seems to lead more and more in our days to the liquidation both of it and of the "referential system" on which it bases.
Vieira de Carvalho, Mário. Chairman of CESEM (Research Institute for Aesthetics and Sociology of Music), and Professor for Sociology at the Department of Musicology of Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL). As invited professor has taught at the Humboldt-University (Berlin, Germany) and the universities of Innsbruck (Austria) and Sao Paulo (Brazil). Member of ISA and of RC51 (2002-2006). Member of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon and of the Direction of the Europäische Musiktheater-Akademie (Vienna). From 2005 to 2008 Secretary of State for Culture of the Portuguese Gouvernment. Ca. 100 publications on sociology, aesthetics and history of music, including his more recent books on Contemporary Music (notably on Lopes-Graça, 2006, and Luigi Nono, 2007), Dramaturgy and Opera Staging (2005), Social History of Opera (Sozialgeschichte des Opernhauses Lissabon, Kassel, Bärenreiter, 1999), Music and Literature (1999, 2005), and a contribution to the book Soziale Horizonte von Musik - Ein kommentiertes Lesebuch zur Musiksoziologie, edited by Christian Kaden and Karsten Mackensen (2006). He edited recently a collection of essays: Expression, Truth and Authenticity: On Adorno's Theory of Music and Musical Performance (Lisbon, CESEM/Colibri, 2009).
Ivana Paula Gortan-Carlin
The Spirit of Tradition in Istrian Music
Ivan Matetić Ronjgov provided the foundation on which music can be intoned in the Istro-littoral "traditional spirit". Building on this, Slavko Zlatić continued writing in the typical Istrolittoral "traditional spirit". A great contribution towards preserving and keeping alive the interest in traditional Istrian musical heritage and the music deriving from that was made by events such as: Naš kanat je lip, Matetićevi dani (Matetić Days), Smotra narodne glazbe i plesa Istre (Review of Istrian Folk Music and Dance), Melodije Istre i Kvarnera (Melodies of Istria and the Littoral).
The "traditional spirit" of Istrian music can today be found in all music genres. The paper indicates where "traditional spirit" can be found in Istrian music, starting from elements of traditional music which must be present in composing to express the "traditional spirit". Composers writing in the spirit of tradition can, when composing, take a rational approach to the traditional elements or, conversely, emotions can prevail, when the composers' roots impose writing such music that contains element of the "traditional spirit".
Music reflects the Zeitgeist; a conscious effort to create music containing elements of the "traditional spirit" aims - consciously or not - at strengthening the local or regional identity and preserving national aspects in the globalization era.
The author presents a survey conducted to verify the interest of the public for listening to music reflecting the "traditional spirit".
Ivana Paula Gortan-Carlin was born on 09/10/1968 in Umag. In 1986 she graduated from the Secondary School of Music "Ivan Matetić Ronjgov" with the title Assistant Music Teacher. In 1994 she took a degree in Musicology at the Faculty of Philosophy in Ljubljana (graduation paper: Music Teaching in Pula during Austro-Hungarian Rule, 1906-1918). After completing a post-graduate course in History at the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb, in 1994 she acquired the title of Master in Human Sciences, Specialization in History (Master's thesis: Music Life in Poreč and the Surroundings, 1880-1918). She has enrolled for a PhD degree at the Faculty of Philosophy in Ljubljana, Department of Musicology. Since 2004 she has been the President of the Cathedra for Music of the Ciakavian Assembly for Music and member of the Conference of the Chakavian Assembly Žminj.
She is the conductor and art director of the Female Choir "Novigrad-Cittanova".
Film/video art - fimmaking (construstion and production) and spectatorship
Film/video art - filmmaking (construction and production) and spectatorship - explores and elaborates basis of perception and cognitive capacities; that is, standard reactions under nonstandard conditions. Perceptive stimuli should actually provoke the same (audio-visual) scenes as in real life; in the case of some experimental films and videos, diverse 'cognitive levels' and 'complex sensations and experiences' are often investigated as specific problems or themes. Filmmaker/video artist with this kind of media is capable to (perhaps partly) manipulate and provoke spectator's cognitive reactions, that is under quasi-laboratory control he can arouse and elaborate the most complex interne representations.
Music as part of film/video stimuli has very important role in perception of this kind of phenomena. Nevertheless, how much does the visual influence the perception of music, in audio-visual forms, such as music videos as new forms of 'listening'? What kind of 'added value' does film image have according to music? By analyzing a few examples we will try to test Annabel J. Cohen's congruent - associative model, which she uses in order to create a framework for understanding perception of multimedia. In fact, Cohen is dealing with film and therefore the visual, as carrier of the narrative, is dominating in the cognitional processes; hence, all the other dimensions (music, speech, texts, sound effects) are cognitively processed only when serving to the narrative. Film music's structure stays 'unheard' and the referential layers are cognitively processed. But what happens when roles are reversed and music becomes primary goal? Are directions of the cognition processes (as shown in C-A model) changed? Does the image structure, ex. in the music videos, stay always present with its symbolic values that are transmitted to music cognition? Can the film/video image, as par exellance medium that deals with and manipulates cognition, influence the music perception in multimedia and, if so, how?
Nina Čalopek studied musicology from 2001 - 2007 on Music Academy, University in Zagreb, graduated with the treatise Zagreb's music milieu 1890 - 1920: trivial and artistic connections, mentor Prof. dr. sc. Eva Sedak. From 2004-2005 scholarship of City Zagreb and from 2005-2006 scholarship of Karl-Franzes Unive rsity in Graz (Austria).
She is from 2009 Croatian delegate in International Society for Contemporary Music. From 2007 Postgraduate doctoral studies in literature, culture, performance arts and film on Philosophical faculty, University in Zagreb, mentor Prof. dr. sc. Hrvoje Turković, subject Experimental film/video and music. From 2007 she works for Croatian Composers' Society as music producer.
In 2006 she worked as producer of Music Biennale Zagreb and Cantus Ensemble and from 2009 as Head producer of Music Biennale Zagreb.
Slovenian composers in light of the development of Bosnian and Herzegovinian artistic and classical music
Art music in Bosnia and Herzegovina, when observed through the progress of western European music, evolved relatively late. The first developmental surges of Bosnian and Herzegovinian artistic and classical music occurred in the second half of the XIX century, and flourished in the second half of the XX century. The causes of this are varied, but are mainly of geo-political and socio-economic character.
A more intense phase of the development of music in Bosnia and Herzegovina began during the era of Austro-Hungarian rule, when new horizons were draw. The expansion itself occurred in the period after World War II, aided largely by composers of the wider community of, then widespread, ex Yugoslavia. In this spectrum of composers are notably two Slovenians. Anton Lavrin and Dane Škerl, by residing in Bosnian and Herzegovina as professors in the Musical Academy of Sarajevo, greatly influenced the growth of artistic and classical music. Evidence of these statements is the piano solo compositions which arose specifically during the time of their residence in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Analysis of these compositions shows the interesting stylistic traits of the compositions of these musicians, as well as the diversity of artistic music in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Merima Čaušević, née Purić, graduated from the school of Theoretical-Pedagogy in the Musical Academy of the University of Sarajevo in 1991, majoring in the Methodology of musical education. In the same institution, in 2002, she earned her Masters degree with her thesis "Piano compositions of Bosnian and Herzegovinian composers - overview, analysis, systematization". She is currently working on her dissertation for her doctorate, entitled "Perspectives and effects of musical education in the process of inclusive socio-education". Čaušević gained formidable experience through her work with children of various ages and older students, as well as through active involvement in highly technical seminars and scientific projects. The author's interests include research in Bosnian and Herzegovinian music, as well as the significance of musical education and music in general in the development of children and personae.
The Musical Aspects and The Definition of A Great Chant in Serbian Orthodox Church
In regard of the fact that the melismatic church melodies are very difficult for interpretation they are replaced with the silabic hymns in everyday practice by the Serbian chanters. That's the main reason why the melismatic melodies (so called the great chant) are almost forgotten in Serbian Orthodox Church. Those were the facts which inspired us to pay our attention to discover and analyze the written musical notes and historiography data related to the great chant as well as the very special prettiness of this kind of hymnody.
After a several years of research we have discovered almost thirty musical-note collections which contained mentioned hymns. Unexpectedly these discovered written musical notes have given us an ability to comprehend and to interpret numerous historical and musical aspects of the great chant. Summation of those enumerated musical aspects has given a suggestion of the definition of this kind of chant and has founded the basis for comparison with other non-Serbian melismatic hymns of the Byzantine provenance.
Nataša Dimić, born in 1973 in Belgrade. Graduated from Faculty of Music, University of Arts in Belgrade in 2006. Graduated with diploma paper: "About a life-giving Trinity holy hymn we sing. A great chant in Serbian Orthodox Church". After graduation continued studying and publishing articles about church music with a special accent on melismatic melodies. Currently Ph. D. student in Belgrade, Faculty of Music - the Department of Musicology.
The Referential in Acousmatic Music
Whereas many art-forms commonly, openly and indeed necessarily generate
references to concepts and contexts which are external to themselves, music, prima facie, appears to be more concerned with the establishment of internal references, requiring nothing extra-musical to create musical coherence. Even a considerable body of acousmatic music attempts to distance itself from the referential potential of the recorded sound material from which it has been assembled. Sound transformation processes may be used to destroy what Denis Smalley has termed 'source bonding': the natural formation of a connection between a sound which is heard and what is
understood to have been its cause. Yet, an expanded musical experience, such as acousmatic music provides, can also exploit the creative possibilities of sound's more documentary mode and its referential power. The use of such sound material, the identity of whose source has been, to some extent, left intact, cannot be considered to be simply 'extra-musical' in nature. Rather, the external references to which the sound material alludes, are very
much integral to our understanding of the music: the spectromorphological (DenisSmalley) and referential forces act in parallel to synthesise an artistic whole. This paper will discuss the multi-functional nature of referential sound in acousmatic music and consider the possible interactions between its comprehension in parallel listening modes.
Robert Dow (b.1964) is a composer of electroacoustic music working in Scotland. He graduated with degrees in Science, Music, Law and Film Studies at the University of Edinburgh, and holds both an MA and a PhD from the University of Birmingham where he studied under Jonty Harrison. Formerly, he was a member of BEAST- Birmingham ElectroAcoustic Sound Theatre-and with them, has participated in numerous concerts of electroacoustic music throughout Britain. Robert Dow is currently a Senior Research Fellow and Director of the Electroacoustic Music Studios at the University of Edinburgh. He specialises in sound theory and the composition and performance of electroacoustic music. His current research explores the similarities between the recording technologies of film, photography and sound.
Ideology and Musical Life - Example of Pula from 1926 to 1952
Instrumentalisation of cultural life by ideology in the period from 1926 to 1952 has left significant trace in Pula 's music events. In this brief period of time Pula has been under the rule of no less than three different ideological orientations, the Italian fascism, the Anglo-American administration and the government of the Federate People's Republic of Jugoslavija (FNRJ), later the Socialist Federative Republic of Jugoslavia (SFRJ).
Relations between music and politics in Pula in the period between the two World Wars became very eccentric, and the external political influence on art was not concealed but, to the contrary, proudly emphasized. The reasons for which the political power wanted to control the functioning of musical culture were manifold. It had at its disposal all financial means - gathered by corporations and other social structures for the organization off all kinds of music performances; it controlled workers and their leisure time; and the same time; it was fulfilling Mussolini's instruction for reconquering world musical
The links between ideology and music has also continued during the Anglo-American military administration (1945-1947), the dichotomy ruling the political sphere was, at that time, clearly manifested in the musical life as well. Power-wilders themselves, by their cultural activities tried to become closer to the musically conscious citizens organising a series of concerts and an opera season, while the "pro-Italian" and the "pro-Yugoslav" part of the inhabitants competed even in the field of music.
In the first years after the Communist Party came into power (1947-1952) the work aimed at cultural conversion faithfully reflected the ideas of real-socialism.One of the main tasks of the people's power in the area of musical culture was to have and educative effect,popularise music which was to be made available to a wider audience, first of all to labourers.Cultural institutions, over which political control was established, were opened, and those institutions acted after the instructions of Agitprop and various party officials.
After 1952, socialist realism ceased to be the official creative orientation in arts, and then a significant share of the cultural sector was transferred to cultural workers and ideological controls, although still present, turned out in less restrictions thus producing favourable effects in the musical life of Pula.
Dr. sc. Lada Duraković was born in 1968 in Pula, where she graduated from the theoretical and instrumental departement of the Ivan Matetić Ronjgov Music High School. She graduated in musicology from the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts and in 2002 with a masters degree from the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Arts , where she also obtained my doctorate in 2007.
Since 1994 she has been working for the Croatian Radio at Pula Radio Station. She has published 11 original scientific papers and a few dozen expert and survey papers and contributed to a scientific project and to the Istrian Encyclopaedia. In 2003 she published a book (The musical life in Pula under the fascist regime, 1926-1943) by the Croatian Society of Musicologists.
Film music beyond stigmatization with effect
Film music of narrative cinema is still vague about her categories despite a constantly growing academic interest. Refusing subsumption to traditional musical forms or styles, it became common to call her "genre", still left with the issue of dealing with a cross-over, heterogeneous hybrid. As "genre" preferably appears within the writing of sociology, linguistics, cultural studies, etc., the term gives a hint where film music can be located. Close to this "textual" line of making meaning, film music was reduced to being nothing but functional and dominated by non-musical parameters. That "genre" also appears within the writing of popular music indicates a possible discourse apart from oscillating between analysis of examples which are approved as absolute/art music, psychological aspects of "unheard melodies" (Gorbman), and the direct analogy of sound and pictures burdened with functions which come along with negative terms of immersion, manipulation or bipolar judgment, like diegetic and non-diegetic.
Concerning the conjunction of aural and visual in narrative cinema, film music could be considered akin to the theoretical assumptions of popular music. Delivering composed and appropriated material she resembles even her attitude to samples /electronic devices or the like that sometimes could be traced back neither by reading traditional sheet music nor by listening. Aside from the fact that this symptom also appears within art music, especially, where electronics are involved, it points to a challenge fairly bigger than the step from printed to e-books. New sounds and the growing amount of recorded - and only recorded music - indicate a new model of source material and a different basis for film music aesthetics. On this background, film music theory could move beyond her constraint to functions like popular music already does in her field.
Mag.phil, 2003, University of Vienna (Drama-, Film- and Media-Studies, Musicology, Psychology). Master's Thesis on Arnold Schönberg's Moses und Aron.
Mag.art, 2004, University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna (voice/ music education). Master's Thesis on Debussy's Pélleas et Mélisande.
Since March 2009 studying for a PhD in Musicology at the University of Vienna with a thesis on film music.
2001 - 2005 voice instructor at music schools in Lower Austria (until 2003 classical singing , later Jazz/ Rock/ Pop), and since 2003 at the officially recognized private drama school "Schauspielschule Krauss" in Vienna.
2006 volunteering at the Austrian Cultural Forum Washington and the United States Holocaust Museum Washington; further at the Austrian Cultural Forum Berlin while working at the Jewish Museum Berlin;
2007 in charge of the contents of the website of the Austrian Cultural Forum Berlin where I got additionally involved in evaluating projects for subsidy (in the field of popular music, film, theatre) in 2008/2009, including shaping the topics of the institute and writing in behalf of the Cultural Attaché.
A House like a "Musical Instrument":
Impulses of the Not Built Performative Architectural Project of the "Contemporary Opera Berlin" and the Architectural Office "GKK" in Berlin 2001
Contemporary Music, especially in its scenic and interdisciplinary appearances, increasingly moves into central zones of attraction and attention in today's cultures. Part of this phenomenon is the reestablishment of (such) music as a lively - live - performative art, conceived for spaces, where music can be physically experienced and enhance the quality of communal and individual human life. Not always are the presented solutions of high artistic value or manage to reach the broader public.
In Berlin (Germany) there has been an exceptional project of a house for contemporary music and music theatre offering a conclusively justified variety of solutions for these not yet settled vibrant cultural "zones". Tied back to the model of ancient agoras the building and its purposes were mapped out during 2001 collaboratively by a collaborative team of specialists in New Music and advanced performative architecture. It can be detected - even though it has not been built - as an ongoing and creative source and reference project on esthetic and communicative processes in artistic, architectural, and urban developments. The concept of this house shall be positioned as a sample turning point towards a current and nowadays more and more common approach to Music and to the placing of cultural events in everyday life, rediscovering the value and the radiance of life performances and at the same time hereby anchoring in the arduous area where artistic activity and everyday life meet. The concept can be discussed as a conscious approach to the risky mediation between high artistic timely claims and popular cultural practices.
Simone Heilgendorff, born in Leverkusen-Opladen (Germany), is a musicologist and an accomplished violist. Currently she is University Professor of Applied Musicology and head of the Department of Musicology at Klagenfurt University (Austria) http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/muwi/inhalt/1.htm as well as the head of the study program in Applied Musicology (BA, MA) which is offered in cooperation with the Carinthian State Conservatory.
She studied Musicology, Philosophy, and Psychology (Dr. phil., Humboldt University Berlin/Germany) as well as Viola (Master of Music, Univ. of Michigan Ann Arbor/USA) in Freiburg, Zurich, Ann Arbor, and in Berlin. Since 1993 she has been teaching in several Colleges and Universities with an emphasis on the mediation of scholarly and artistic practice. Simone Heilgendorff is on the advisory board of the John Cage Organ Project in Halberstadt (Germany). http://www.john-cage.halberstadt.de As a violist she is active as a founding member of the Berlin based Kairos Quartet http://www.kairosquartett.de/, which specializes in New music.
Her research interests as well as her publications (texts and CDs) focus on New and baroque music, notably on their cultural connotations and musical analysis as well as baroque and today's performance practice and culture of musical interpretation.
Education of the masses. A model of solution offered in writings on music history in the German speaking area after World War II
Biologistic and nationalistic approaches have spread in writings on music history since the 19th century, especially in the German speaking countries. In the time of national socialism this resulted on the one hand in detestable rassistic elimination and Germanic mystification, and led on the other hand to a certain increase in constructive design. After World War II this ,legacy' should be overcome without loss in substance. Writings on music history by Eberhard Preußner (1899-1964) symptomatically show an access that - having been adjusted to national-socialistic ideology before - now changed to a new referential system. Within this Preußner binds up a demanding ethic pretension and the effort to initiate broad social strata into a basically historical understanding of music. The paper will duplicate these developments and comment them critically from a present-day perspective.
Ao. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Thomas Hochradner (* 1963), Doz. for historical musicology, is at present employed at the University of Music Mozarteum in Salzburg teaching classes e.g. in history of music and Austrian traditional music. He is head of the Institute for Reception and Interpretation of Music. In his lectures and publications he mainly deals with the history of music of the 17th to the 20th century, especially referring to musical philology. He is editor of several books such as "Bach - in Salzburg" and "'Silent Night! Holy Night!' between Nostalgia and Reality", various musical editions and of the forthcoming catalogue of works of Johann Joseph Fux, and has published numerous papers and essays in anthologies and music periodicals.
Katarina Bogunović Hočevar
Glasbenozgodovinski pojem romantika - znanstveno uporabna oznaka?
Vprašanje uporabnosti pojma romantika v glasbi se na prvi pogled - verjetno zaradi zakoreninjenosti in pogostnosti rabe v muzikološki in drugi strokovni literaturi - sploh ne zdi tako zapleteno in vprašljivo, kot ga v resnici kaže poskus globljega razumevanja in rabe le-tega. Članek razkriva, kako pojem obravnava glasbenozgodovinska literatura in katera vprašanja ostajajo še vedno brez odgovorov. Avtorica se sprašuje, ali je za to kriva prav nerazrešena temeljna predpostavka: kaj je bistvo romantike oz. kje le-to kaže iskati, da bi morda lahko razumeli romantiko kot umetnostno in morebitno glasbenozgodovinsko kategorijo? Zdi se, da brez vpogleda v nekatere druge referenčne sisteme ostaja pojmovanje romantike še ena neuspela interpretacija, ki bo znova potrdila nemoč pri opredeljevanju pojma.
Katarina Bogunović Hočevar je diplomirala na oddelku za muzikologijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani. Leta 2002 se je na omenjenem oddelku zaposlila kot mlada raziskovalka in naslednjega leta bila izvoljena v naziv asistentke. Njeno raziskovalno delo je usmerjeno na področje slovenske zgodovine glasbe.
Eschatological meaning of music; eschatological function of liturgy
In this paper I will try to identify similarities between two systems of defining function and essence of music, which, prima facie, may appear as completely different: Bloch's understanding of music, on one side, and music in context of liturgy (of Orthodox Church; as explained in liturgics and theological knowledge), on the other side. Namely, in my opinion, although Bloch's understanding of music relates to music art in total (with some exclusions), interesting points can be made, evidencing reflection of these two approaches in one another.
In Bloch's opinion, music, as a transcending art, incorporates a certain "added value" (beyond time and society dimensions), enabling us to perceive some other, future world ("Utopia" or "Eschaton"), which, nevertheless, cannot be understood completely because we live in a "moment of darkness"; this idea is very similar with interpretation of the Liturgy (and music, as its important part) as a vision of future Kingdom of God, i.e. as a "hint of tasting" this vision; Bloch uses similar term when referring to music: "hint of radiance". In eschatological sense, understanding the Liturgy goes even further - the Liturgy and the music are a direct connection with Heaven Liturgy which is performed in Heaven at the same time.
Apart of these obvious similarities, in my view these two approaches are very alike also because of the fact that they are raising questions relating to ontology of music and its autonomy, and therefore my intention is to deal with these questions too.
Olga Jokić was born in Belgrade, Serbia, in 1984. Got a graduate degree at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade, Department of musicology, with subject: "Opera Katerina Izmailova in aspects of gender relations: symbolic and real crime of Katerina Lvovna". At present attending doctoral studies at the same Faculty.
Participated in International conference "South Slavic Avant-garde between East and West", held at the Faculty of Drama in Belgrade in December 2007.
Glasbeno didaktični priročniki v 18. stoletju: orodje za osvajanje tehničnega znanja ali še kaj? Na primeru dokumentov iz glasbenega arhiva Frančiškanskega samostana v Novem mestu
Kljub dejstvu, da so danes fondi starejših muzikalij v slovenskih arhivih in knjižnicah glede na naše siceršnje vedenje o razvitosti glasbene kulture tega prostora v preteklosti zelo siromašni, nam ob sekundarnih virih za 18. stoletje kljub vsemu mudijo zadosten okvir za poskusno rekonstrukcijo dejanskega stanja. Glasbene kulture brez specifičnega glasbenega izobraževanja izobraževanja seveda ni moglo biti, za ugotavljanje le-tega in možnostih zanj pa so eden glavnih virov iz tistega časa ohranjeni didaktični priročniki, tako tiskani kot tudi rokopisni. Pregled slabega ducata ohranjenih didaktičnih tiskov in nekaj rokopisnih glasbeno-teoretskih virov skupaj z ohranjenim repertoarjem, ki je sodilo v praktični del izobraževanja, kot ga predlagajo vidnejši učbeniki, kažejo, da je se je glasbena izobrazba v 'dolgem' 18. stoletju odvijala na več ločenih načinov. Tu ne bomo govorili o glasbi v učnih programih splošnega šolanja, temveč o specifičnem urjenju v glasbenih veščinah, pri katerem je prav tako treba ločiti učenje cerkvene glasbe za funkcionalno uporabo duhovništva pri njihovem delu, pa napotke za praktično izvajanje generalnega basa in pa tehnično-teoretsko urjenje v igri na določena glasbila. Prav priročniki za posamezna najpriljubljenejša solistična glasbila tistega časa, violina, flavta, klavir, so ena glavnih novosti tega časa. Zadnja skupina je neločljivo povezana z repertoarjem, ki je posvetnega značaja, a nas zaradi svojega praktično vzgojnega pomena tudi v cerkvenih arhivih ne preseneča. V prispevku bo kot vzorec za določanje takratne glasbene mentalitete - v kontekstu ustreznega ohranjenega repertoarja in kulturno-zgodovinskega ozadja - predstavljena skupina treh tiskanih in dveh rokopisnih priročnikov, ki so se do danes ohranili v knjižnici Frančiškanskega samostana v Novem mestu.
Doc. dr. Metoda Kokole je predstojnica Muzikološkega inštituta Znanstvenoraziskovalnega centra SAZU. Raziskovalno se ukvarja z glasbeno dediščino slovenskega prostora v času od 16. do 18. stoletja in je avtorica številnih razprav o raznih aspektih raziskovanega obdobja: posvetnih renesančnih del italijanskih avtorjev, posvečenih kranjskemu in štajerskemu plemstvu, malih duhovnih koncertov začetka 17. stoletja, pa glasbe, ki so jo izvajali v 17. stoletju v koprski katedrali, do analiz dokumentov o prvih opernih uprizoritvah na Slovenskem, pregleda delovanja in ustroja Academie philharmonicorum in italijanskega opernega repertoarja v 18. stoletju. Med njena najpomembnejša znanstvena dela sodi monografija o skladatelju Isaacu Poschu, ki je leta 2009 izšla pri založbi Lang.
Operna režija na Slovenskem med obema vojnama: med estetiko gledališča in estetiko opere
Zgodovina operne režije na Slovenskem sega v čas druge polovice 19. stoletja, njene zametke pa pripisujemo Josipu Nolliju, avtorju prvega priročnika za operno režijo pri nas, s katerim je skušal utrditi zavedanje o pomenu operne režije in njenih posebnostih v primerjavi z dramskim gledališčem. Temu segmentu opernih predstav so od ustanovitve slovenskega Deželnega gledališča leta 1892 naprej sicer posvečali nekaj pozornosti, a profesionalnega odnosa do njegovega pomena in razvoja ni bilo. Posledično je profil opernega režiserja nastajal počasi, postopoma skozi desetletja. Prvi režiserji so bili tujci, ki so orali ledino in postopoma vplivali na oblikovanje tega profila med slovenskimi gledališčniki. Temelje iščemo v gledališki režiji, saj so posamezne osebnosti delovale na obeh umetnostnih poljih, kar je še posebej značilno za čas med obema vojnama. Ob tem se sprašujemo o prepletanju zakonitosti estetike gledaliških in opernih predstav, ki so nastajale pod vodstvom vidnejših režiserjev ljubljanske Drame, kot so Osip Šest, Bratko Kreft, Ferdo Delak, Ciril Debevec, Peter Golovin, Robert Primožič idr. Refleksije v javnosti kažejo, da sta se že med vojnama v Ljubljani izoblikovali dve struji operne režije, tradicionalna in radikalnejša v smeri sodobnih gledaliških prijemov. O začetku sistematičnega razvoju tega segmenta opernih predstav lahko govorimo šele od leta 1939, ko ljubljanska Opera zaživi pod vodstvom V. Ukmarja in vodjo režije Cirila Debevca. Konec t.i. šablonskih režij pa pomeni šele eksperimentalna režija Hinka Leskovška po drugi svetovni vojni.
Darja Koter (firstname.lastname@example.org) je na Akademiji za glasbo Univerze v Ljubljani izredna profesorica in predavateljica za področje zgodovine glasbe. Raziskovalno se ukvarja z inštrumentalno dediščino, glasbeno ikonografijo, zgodovino glasbene pedagogike in glasbenih društev ter se poglablja v segmente opusov slovenskih skladateljev. Izsledke objavlja v domačih in tujih revijah, zbornikih razprav in monografijah. Od leta 2006 je urednica tematskih publikacij Glasbenopedagoškega zbornika Akademije za glasbo. Med leti 2005 do 2007 je sodelovala v mednarodnem projektu muzikološkega oddelka Univerze v Bonnu.
Karmen Salmič Kovačič
Človekovo doživljanje glasbe - najzapletenejši in najkompleksnejši referenčni sistem
Razprava bo najprej poskušala razločiti dve vrsti (ravni) referenčnih sistemov - zunanjo in notranjo. Zunanji ali makro referenčni sistemi nastajajo s človekom kot socialnim bitjem, skratka v njegovem stiku z okolico, družbo, notranji pa nastajajo v človeku med njegovim ustvarjalnim, poustvarjalnim in recepcijskim stikom z glasbo. Prve opredeljujejo človekove socialne mreže, v katere človek glasbo vključuje ter združuje z zadovoljevanjem svojih drugih, zlasti socialnih, potreb in oblik družbenega življenja ter jih nemalokrat celo zlorablja za drugačne cilje; druge pa predstavlja človek sam s svojim zapletenim miselno-čustveno-čutnim svetom.
Osnovni namen prispevka bo osvetliti človeka kot mikro referenčni sistem, predvsem njegovo čustveno doživljanje glasbe, oziroma njegovo sposobnost/nesposobnost doživljanja glasbe kot čistega estetskega fenomena, skozi zgodovino klasične glasbe, pa tudi v luči drugih glasbenih zvrsti. Zunanji glasbeni referenčni sistemi bodo iztočnica in vir podatkov za spoznavanje notranjega, človekovega. Dotaknili se bomo tudi vprašanja modernizma, ki pretežno zanika čustveno doživljanje glasbe, ne izključuje pa razumskega, in v ospredje postavlja kategorijo naprednosti. V središču pozornosti bo vprašanje, kakšen človek je sploh sposoben poslušati glasbo popolnoma objektivno, torej jo zaznavati kot povsem zvočni fenomen in pri tem izključiti vse ostale notranje (subjektivne) referenčne sisteme. Pri tem bomo ponovno premislili dognanja slovenskega filozofa Franceta Vebra, zlasti tista, ki zadevajo čustveno in miselno "zunajglasbeno" osvobojenega poslušalca.
Namen razprave bo tako dokazati, da je človek že sam po sebi dovolj zapleten in kompleksen referenčni sistem, zato o avtonomiji glasbe ne moremo govoriti niti tedaj, ko se zdi, da ta ni vpeta v neko drugo socialno funkcijo, ampak da je osamosvojena človekova dobrina.
Karmen Salmič Kovačič, roj. 1965 v Novem mestu, je po končani gimnaziji v Brežicah in srednji glasbeni šoli v Ljubljani (glavni predmet klavir) nadaljevala študij na Oddelku za muzikologijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani. Tam je leta 1990 diplomirala, leta 2007 pa magistrirala s temo Orkestralni opus Demetrija Žebreta. V letih 1991-1997 je bila asistentka za zgodovino glasbe na Pedagoški fakulteti v Mariboru; od leta 1997 je zaposlena kot bibliotekarka - strokovna referentka za glasbeno in filmsko zbirko v Univerzitetni knjižnici Maribor.
Asja Nina Kovačev
Absolute music and music as a sign system
Absolute music is usually denoted as non-representational or non-objective music, while music as a representational system is considered to refer to some other, non-musical idea, object, notion or emotion. The "extra-musical reality" is by the majority of researchers defined as the realm of feelings and emotions, but its meanings can also imply other psychic qualities, particularly perception and cognition.
Because of its multiple meaning implications music is usually regarded as a particularly hybrid sign system. Musical sounds engage a wide variety of resources for signification, from indexes of bodily states to the most abstract notions, often associated with cultural symbols. Aesthetic evaluation of musical signs, based on rule-governed stylistic norms, even enlarges the possibilities of musical interpretation.
Musical signs can have the capacity of signifying themselves (intrinsic musical semiosis), can be associated with extra-musical objects or referents (referential musical semiosis), and can be related to possible interpretants (interpretative musical semiosis). Musical interpretation deals with different effects of musical signs in existing or potential minds and implies: musical perception, musical performance and musical intelligence.
The basic musical practices are embedded in multiple contexts and frames of reference (particularly in histories, performances, compositional acts, receptions, and others). A special quality of music is that among all other significant forms, it has the most subtle and complex relationship with verbal language and other sorts of referential systems, which it is traditionally associated with. This can make music an important source of general semiotics, but it can also divide musical semiotics into competing camps, each of which is incomplete and has to be supplemented by other signs.
Prof. Dr. Dr. Asja Nina Kovačev was born in Ljubljana. After graduating and finishing her Master's Studies, she got the Philosophical Degree (Ph.D.) of Cultural Sociology and after that the Philosophical Degree (Ph.D.) of Psychology of Personality. She is a Full Professor of General Psychology and a Full Professor of Cultural Sociology at University of Ljubljana. By now she has published about 70 papers and 7 books. She has presented over 60 papers at international congresses and has got 8 important international scientific prizes. Her research is focused on symbolism, semiotics, aesthetics, colours, identity, emotions, personality and social interaction.
Cheong Wai - Ling
Music as Cultural Studies: Olivier Messiaen's Sept Haikai
Even though our past century has witnessed Western art composers writing copiously about their own music, Messiaen's obsession about explaining his music through words remains unequalled. His Sept Haikai: esquisses Japonaises pour piano solo et petit orchestre is a case in point. Composed in 1962 immediately after the newly wedded couple's first visit to Japan, Sept Haikai is rich in Japanese imagery which Messiaen recorded first hand. Typically, the imagery is not just conveyed through music, but the verbal texts arguably play an even more important mediating role. Included in volume V, part 2 of his Traité de rythme, de couleur et d'ornithologie, Messiaen's analysis of Sept Haikai stands out in its thoroughness and also in its signification of cultural studies at work.
According to Messiaen, 'Gagaku', the centrepiece of Sept Haikai, is closely modelled on the traditional gagaku (Japanese imperial court music). The setting of two melodies, one of which is played in unison by the trumpet, two oboes and cor anglais, and the other doubled inexactly (i.e. with variable intervals) by the piccolo and soprano clarinet, is derived from gagaku, in which the Japanese wind instruments, hichiriki (double-reed bamboo pipe) and ryuteki (transverse bamboo flute), play heterophonic tunes. In addition, eight violins are called upon to mimic the sound effects of the sho (Japanese mouth organ). Messiaen notes that the sho chords of gagaku lie above rather than below the melodies, just as the heaven is above the earth, an effect he replicates in his own music.
Ils [les accords] ne sont pas sous la ligne mélodique, comme dans la Européenne, ils sont en dessus: comme le Ciel est au dessus de la Terre, disent les Japonais.
Messiaen's account of the gagaku and his appropriation of it lead us to question if we should confine the reference system of his Sept Haikai to his writings, or perhaps we should extend it to the underlying message of a zealous pursuit of cultural studies in an age of globalization, which leads Messiaen and others to cherish through notes the exotic as never before.
Cheong Wai-Ling is Professor at the Music Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. She received the Ph.D. from Cambridge University, where she studied with Derrick Puffett. Apart from publishing in Acta Musicologica, Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Music Analysis, Perspectives of New Music, Revue de Musicologie, and Tempo, a book chapter entitled "Buddhist Temple, Shinto Shrine and the Invisible God of Sept Haikai" has lately appeared in Messiaen the Theologian (http://www.ashgate.com/isbn/9780754666400).
Tijana Popović Mladjenović
Mahler's Adagietto: Variations on the Theme of Music in the Space Between Autonomy and Function
The starting point of this paper is the Adagietto, the fourth movement of Mahler's Fifth Symphony, which bears a strong affinity to the composer's song on Rückert's poem "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen", that is, the question of its poetic sense, aesthetic meaning and the context of different referential systems in which it appears and is interpreted.
Since the very beginning, the music of this movement - interpreted as a love "song without words" for Alma, on the basis of the report of the Dutch conductor Mengelberg, who maintained that the Adagietto served as Mahler's love offering to Alma Schindler at a formative stage in their courtship or, in other words, that it was conceived, as emphasized by Adorno, 'as an individual piece within the whole' - has encouraged an isolated view of the Adagietto (1901), which has tended to be lifted out of its original context (Kinderman).
The question of the primary context of the Adagietto, its relevance and the latency of its potential metamorphoses and different meanings, has become especially problematized and complex since its use in Visconti's film Death in Venice (1971), based on Mann's novella of the same title. Thus, this paper deals with its '(pre)existence' in the space between autonomy and function, whereby the forms of presenting its sense and producing its meaning have continuously crystallizing and networking the emotion being essentially the same through different 'variations' of the Adagietto, that is, its different contextualizations, from 1971 to the present day (in the films: Death in Venice, Mahler, All Things Fair, Timecode, Before Night Falls, Bride of the Wind, Ghetto, Fiction, Come Diventai Alida Valli, etc.; at the memorial service for Robert Kennedy; as background music for the video dedicated to the victims of World War I; as the music used by ice dancers Virtue and Moir; as the music for the ballet coreographed by Béjart and interpreted by Donn; as background music for the video presentation of The Triumph of Death by Bruegel, or for an excerpt from Araby by Joyce, or for the profile of Audrey Hepburn, or for MMORPG World of Warcraft: Dalaran Time-lapse, etc.).
Tijana Popović Mladjenović, Ph.D., musicologist, Assistant Professor at the Department of Musicology of the University of Arts in Belgrade. She specialized at the Sorbonne (1990/91). Her main research interests include the history of music of the fin de siecle, contemporary music, and the issues concerning thinking in music. Author of four books: Musical Writing (1996; reviewed in Music and Letters), E lucevan le stelle (1997), Claude Debussy and His Time (2008), and Processes of Pan-stylistic Musical Thinking (2009). She participated numerous conferences in Serbia, France, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Lithuania, FBiH, Greece, etc., and published studies in Serbian, English and German. Member of the editorial staff of the musicological journal Musical Wave (Belgrade).
Dragana Jeremić Molnar
Fragments on relation between music and reality in Alfred Schütz's writings: Overpraising Mozart and neglecting Wagner
Philosopher Alfred Schütz did not write extensively on music. Nevertheless, his few essays on music are valuable contributions to the philosophy of music (Fragments on the Phenomenology of Music, Mozart and the philosophers) and sociology of music (Making music together). Schütz was well educated in music, good informed about writings on music and throughout his life deeply immersed in the world of (German) music. As a theorist Schütz was interested in some important phenomenological and sociological problems related to musical process, musical 'inner' time, creation of social relationships between composer and beholders (performers, listeners and those who read/analyze music), etc.
I am particularly interested in those parts of Schütz's writings in which he discusses potentials of music - in the first place of operatic music - to create reality, distinct from the everyday reality. Inspired by the writings of Wilhelm Dilthey and following his own understanding of theatre as 'finite province of meaning', Schütz raised the question of musically constructed reality in the essay on Mozart's operatic output. Contrary to his wide knowledge of literature on music, Schütz did not (even in the footnote) give attention to Richard Wagner who had been, both as theorist and composer, deeply involved not only with the problem of reality but with construction of reality as well. That is why I will try in this paper to reexamine the assumption that Italian type of opera is the one "entirely detached from the reality of life". In order to accomplish this I will make an enquiry about Dilthey's insights into opera (from his writing Von deutscher Dichtung und Musik) and analyze and compare Wagner's and Schütz's statements about relation between opera and reality.
Dr. Dragana Jeremić-Molnar (1974), musicologist, is assistant professor at the Department of Musicology (Faculty of Music in Belgrade), where she teaches 19th century music. She is the DAAD-Alumni. Dragana Jeremić-Molnar contributes to musical, sociological and philosophical journals and symposia proceedings. She is the author of several publications: Nineteenth-Century Serbian Piano music (2006), Richard Wagner, constructor of "genuine" reality (2007), Redemption of Son's Imaginary Grieves: Modest Mussogskij's "Odipus" and"Lybian"(2008), Redemption of Father's Imaginary Grieves: Modest Mussogskij's "Boris Godunov" (2008). Together with Aleksandar Molnarshe wrote books Myth, Ideology and Mystery in Richard Wagner's Thetralogy (2004); Retreat of Sublime and Conquest by Avant-garde in the Music of Modern Epoch. Vol. 1. Musically Sublime in the Works of Beethoven and Schönberg (2009); Retreat of Sublime and Conquest by Avant-garde in the Music of Modern Epoch. Vol. 2. Musical Avant-gardism in Schönberg's Dodecaphonic Poetics and Adorno's Critical Aesthetics (2009).
Julijana Zhabeva Papazova
The alternative music in Yugoslavia in the 80s and the concept of her ideology
The alternative music in Yugoslavia was born at the beginning of the 80s at the same time as alternative music in the UK or USA. In the group of alternative bands belongs the musicians who were at the beginning of their work under influences of punk and new wave music and were mostly against the meinstrim pop/rock musical culture. The problem of this paper will be concern about the definition of ideology of these bands. For better analyse J selected one band from each republic where it was some alternative-music scene: Mizar-Macedonia, Sharlo akrobata-Serbia, SCH-Bosnia and Hercegovina, Grch-Croatia, and Laibach-Slovenia.The main topics of discussion are going to be:
-the places of distribution of alternative music;
-musical performance as ritual;
-the spirit of independence in the self-management in Yugoslavia;
-the similarities and differences of attitudes or multiplicity of perspectives.
Julijana Zhabeva-Papazova is born in Veles, 1978.
She is Master of Arts (Theoretical department at the Music Academy in Skopje).
Julijana is author of two books and she has published many articles on classical and rock music in: Dnevnik-Skopje, International Piano-London, New Sound-Belgrade, Hudebni vedi-Prague, Arti Musices-Zagreb, Kontra magazin-Belgrade. She is a member of the Croatian Musicology Society and a member of the British Forum of Ethnomusicology.
She has participated at couple of international conferences in: Macedonia, Croatia, Greece, United Kingdom, Bulgaria and Serbia.
In june 2010 she is going to present a panel text at the International conference-Ideologies and ethics in the uses and abuses of sound in Koli-Finland organized by WFAE.
She is also a winner of couple of awards: State award-9 November (2006); Diploma from Youth cultural center-Skopje (2007), etc.
She currently researches her doctoral thesis about Alternative/rock music in Yugoslavia in the period between 1980-1991, at the Institute of Art-Bulgarian Academy of Science in Sofia.
Music in its hymnographic mirror(s): the case of srbljak
In this article music and church singing are discussed from the perspective of Serbian sacred poetry, as presented in the Srbljak. Srbljak, as a special type of menaion liturgical books, is taken as the main subject of the study because it contains non-translational ecclesiastical poetry (unlike the major portion of hymns translated from Greek) devoted to regular religious services to Serbian saints. The oldest service dates back to 13th century (Service to St. Simeon written by St. Sava), while the newest were written in 19th and 20th centuries. Therefore, it is possible to trace historical continuity and/or change in hymnographic approach to music.
Hymnography, with all its complexities and internal relationships, is recognized as a "poetical expression of Orthodox theology" and it "reflects Orthodox worship" (E. Wellesz). However, a close reading of Srbljak hymns texts reveals that Orthodox worship is not the only referential system by which concept of church singing is determined. Since this type of poetry is often based on services to certain of generally acknowledged Christian Saints, a hymnographic "picture" of chanting directs our attention toward interplay between Byzantine "original" and Serbian carrying out. Another important point is exegesis - as explication of the meaning of a "text", potentially even a symbolic artefact - a complex process that involves context, reference, genre, reader reception, authorial intention, literary structure, etc. This is the reason why the word mirror is used in singular and plural form in the title.
Ivana Perković, musicologist. Graduated in musicology in 1995, received MA (1997) and PhD (2006) in musicology from Faculty of Music, University of Arts, Belgrade. Employed at the Faculty of Music since 1995, current position: assistant-professor.
The main subject of Ivana Perković's research is Serbian Orthodox church music, medieval, Romantic, as well as contemporary. She is also researching different aspects of 18th century music. Author of two books: on Serbian Oktoechos (Music of Serbian Oktoechos, Belgrade, 2004), and on Serbian choral church music in the period of Romanticism (From Angel Chant to Choral Art. Serbian Choral Church Music in the Period of Romanticism, Belgrade, 2008). Ivana Perković participated numerous conferences in Serbia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Greece, Finland, France, etc, and published studies in Serbian, English and German. She received research grants for studying in Sofia and Vienna. During 2006 and 2007 she was chief of the project on endangered musical archives funded by British Library. She continues similar activities in 2008 and 2009 in Historical Archive in Pančevo.
Max Weber's Theory of Music Development: Evolution and Rationalization of Music
Max Weber argued that Western society is characterized by a tendency towards extreme rationalization. Having been defined as a process of progressive intellectualization, rationalization was supposed to be evident in all aspects of social life - economics, law, culture, religion and art. However, Weber advocated that this process was nowhere more conspicuous than in music, and he applied the "rationalization thesis" to the features of music itself - to melody, harmony, polyphony, tuning and scale systems, as well as instrument technology. He saw the process of rationalization in composers' ability to use progressively complex musical agents, which led to the enhancing of human reason and to the increasing abundance of musical language. Furthermore, he explicated the rationalization process as a means in the fight against certain irrational 'threats' that could stop music development, such were certain convictions and social institutions (for instance, religion). In this paper I will survey Max Weber's famous "rationalization thesis" as an example of evolutionistic paradigm in music sociology. I will focus on the formation of the evolutionistic model in Weber's sociology by presenting that the model was the consequence of the combination of the influences of both positivistic and historical traditions in sociology. Although Weber is regularly discussed as an opponent of the evolutionistic tendencies in sociology, I will show how the evolutionistic paradigm seems to be germane when the analysis of Weber's study on music is discussed. Finally, I will conclude the paper with some observations on Weber's analysis of Richard Wagner's opus as the peak of the rationalization process in music, which will illustrate Weber's understanding of the music development.
Ana Petrov (1982, Smederevo, Serbia) is a Ph.D. student of sociology and teaching assistant at the Sociology Department at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade. She holds master degree in musicology (Richard Wagner's influence on Friedrich Nietzsche's understanding of music, 2007) and sociology (Public Concert as a Social Phenomenon, 2008). Since 2005 she has participated in several international conferences debating on aesthetics of music (specifically 19th-Century German aesthetics) and on the current trends in the field of music sociology. At the moment, Petrov is dealing with Max Weber's sociology of music, which is a part of his Ph. D. thesis considering Weber's work in both sociological and philosophical contexts.
The question of referential frames in Wagner's music dramas
The paper tries to appropriate the communication model of R. Jakobson, further developed from the semiological view point by J.-J. Nattiez and the communication models of reception theory on the plurimedial form of an opera. The "ideal" receiver of an opera performance namely communicates with all three levels of staged production: he is at the same time reader of the libretto, spectator of the realized theatrical production and listener of the realized musical score. But beside these three referential levels comes another one which stems from the interaction between these media. Such collisions of different operatic referential frames are investigated on three "situations" from Wagner's music dramas. The conclusion must be that - if we paraphrase W. Iser - the implicit receiver of an opera production captures all the predispositions of an operatic work to function, which stem from literary text, staged production, musical "voices" and from the interaction of them.
After completing his secondary education at Bežigrad High School, Gregor Pompe enrolled in Comparative Literature and Literature Theory and German at the Faculty of Arts, and later in Musicology. In 2000 he graduated in musicology and German. For his thesis Rational Serial Organisation and Coincidence - the Uniformity of the Different (Racionalna serialna organizacija in naključje - enakost različnega), the faculty awarded him the Prešeren Student Prize. In December 2000 he started working at the Department of Musicology at the Faculty of Arts, where he is writing his master's thesis on symphonic works of Lojze Lebič. Already during his undergraduate course, he made forays into the area of journalism - he published in Dialogi, Nova revija, Klasika, Muzikološki bilten, Delo and Zofa, he prepared interviews for the radio, and for three seasons wrote concert programmes for the Slovenicum Chamber Ensamble. He is a member of the executive board of the Musicological Society (Muzikološko društvo) and president of the Muzina - Society for Promotion and Progress of the New Music. In the scope of this society, he organises international festivals of contemporary music (Muzifest 2000 and 2001), he also prepared the Evening with John Cage at the Kunigunda festival in Velenje. He is active as a composer - after the summer course in Dolenjske Toplice (mentors U. Rojko and M. Ruždjak) he wrote some pieces of work that were already performed in public (Plasti za komorni ansambel, Sedem smrtnih grehov in štiri poslednje reči, Liturgija, Ob klavirju, Atanos 5-7-3-5, Odmev davnine etc.). In November 2000 he prepared an independent composer evening at the Ivan Cankar Cultural and Congress Centre.
Symbols of faith in metaliturgical discourse - Case Messiaen
Long and productive referential relationship between church and music has been changed in Modern age. In new epoch this communication has gone through various existential modes. Transferable process which include religious doctrine and function of music became more complex and creative than ever before. Subjective and confessional approach to composing in the name of the faith correspond with modernism groundwork in music. Remarkable example of Olivier Messiaen's opus can show us something important about music - there is no new topics just new concepts. Famous French composer deliberately demonstrate artistic power in implementing strong sacramental ideas through works which surface shows little similarity with religious or liturgical canon. Messiaen, devoted catholic, recognize the importance of spreading the ultimate message by all possible means, even if it obviate church as an institution and specific musical genre. Furthermore we can designate Messiaen's role in European modernism as an preacher and evangelist of Christian voice in music. In this paper we will expose the nature of Messiaen's poetics from theological point of view. Is it a simulacrum or ''true'' symbolism of the faith? Private jubilant celebration or public glorification? Hidden answers could be buried in selected compositions: Vingt regards sur l'enfant-Jésus, Visions de l'Amen and Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine. Our research method will combine analytical and hermeneutical scope under the unifying text theory. The central objective of this paper is to reveal (using music semiotics) symbolic representations of faith. Doing so we can unlock the next level of understanding - composite cultural functions that Messiaen's music, especially piano pieces, fulfill.
Igor Radeta was born in Belgrade in 1981. Graduate degree at the Department of Musicology, Faculty of Music, University of Arts in Belgrade. Subject: Semiotic analysis of the narrative in Ravel's Gaspard de la Nuit in 2009. Currently attending doctoral studies at the same faculty. Participated in several symposiums.
Delovanje radijskega orkestra Ljubljana od leta 1955 do 1963
Orkester Radia Ljubljana ali Radio-orkester je začel delovati že v predvojnem času, leta 1928. S koncertiranjem je zaradi priključitve k orkestru Slovenske filharmonije prenehal leta 1948. Radijska postaja Ljubljana pa je potrebovala svoj glasbeni ansambel, če je želela oddajati glasbeni program. Tako so leta 1955 pod vodstvom Uroša Prevorška ponovno ustanovili radijski orkester.
Čas ponovne ustanovitve orkestra je čas prvih znamenj ideološkega popuščanja od prepričanja, da mora umetnost odražati sodobno življenje, biti preporsta in hkrati razumljiva delovnemu človeku; čas, ko tudi koncertni programi naznanjajo odmik od socialističnega realizma, ki je po koncu druge svetovne vojne veljal za ideal.
Pomembna ločnica v obravnavanih prvih letih delovanja radijskega orkestra je tudi leto 1957 oziroma 1958, ko se je v Jugoslaviji pričela centralizacija kulturne sfere, celotni slovenski partijski vrh pa se je izrekel proti temu. Tako so na primer leta 1958 slovenski politiki podprli težnjo RTV Ljubljana po lastnem programu; s tem letom se je povečalo tudi število koncertov radijskega orkestra, pričeli so sodelovati ne le s solisti na opernih koncertih, temveč tudi z drugimi orkestri, kot je orkester Slovenske filharmonije.
Na podlagi pregleda programov izvajanih skladb radijskega orkestra se nam osvetli misel, da se je čas, ki ga zgodovinarji imenujejo >sproščena šestdeseta<, pri radijskem orkestru pojavil prej kot leta 1958, ko je oblast uradno začela dopuščati glasbeno moderno. Saj se na koncertnih programih pojavljajo imena skladateljev, ki jih slogovno uvrščamo med skladatelje glasbene moderne. Iz tega je moč sklepati, da delovanje radijskega orkestra ni v celoti potekalo soodvisno s takratnim družbenim dogajanjem in je od tega tudi odstopalo.
Po končani gimnaziji Celje Center, se je leta 2005 vpisala na oddelek za muzikologijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani. Leta 2009 je diplomirala s temo Vinko Globokar - ustvarjalna izhodišča in skladba Zlom, istega leta je postala tudi mlada raziskovalka na oddelku za muzikologijo v Ljubljani. V doktorski disertaciji raziskuje področje slovenske glasbe, glasbenih ustanov na slovenskem s težiščem po drugi svetovni vojni.
Spencer, Darwin, and Music in the Inception of Evolutionism
From its very beginning in the late 19th century musicology has constantly deliberated issues about origin of music, music concepts and its definition. These issues were current in time when the famous Darwin's theory of biological evolution echoed in public. British positivism engendered, in addition to Darwin's one, the other one, Herbert Spencer's theory of social-cultural evolution. The correspondence between Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin bears witness to the fact that those thinkers were quite interested in the problem of evolution in music but from different points of view. Darwin saw the specific role of music in the evolutionary process, that is, as one of tools in the natural selection. Spencer viewed society as an organism and explained it together with origins of music in evolutionary terms. However, the Spencerian point of view was more influential, since it prevailed within thinking on music evolution in the discourses on music during nineteenth and twentieth century. These interpretations included the interpretation of music as a historical and cultural phenomenon. We have to remember that the elements of social Darwinism, with which is Spencer connected to, are also present in racialist and Nazi ideologies of 20th century. The aim of paper is to introduce the basic theoretical issues of these two authors and to refer to trails which evolutionary thinking left on musicology as discipline.
Vesna Rožić (1974, Split, Croatia) is a musicologist-cooperator at the Institute for systematic musicology of Music academy in Zagreb (University of Zagreb). From 2005 she is active as a member, research cooperator and lecturer in the Centre for Women's studies in Zagreb. She graduated musicology at the Music academy in 2000 with the thesis Adaptation of the New-Music Techniques to Traditional Settings. Rudolf Bruči - A Composer between Various Aesthetics and Ideologies and she is a MA candidate in musicology at Zagreb University. Presently, she is working on music of Croatian woman composer Ivana Lang. From 2002 she published several book reviews, articles and scientific papers. From 2006 she participated in a few international conferences, debating on feminist musicology and woman in music history. Her areas of special interest are (feminist) musicology, 20th-century music, feminist and postcolonial theory, theories of identities, women's and gender studies.
The Music of Hanning Schröder (1896-1987): Between Autonomy and Function and Between Twelve-Tone Technique and New Objectivity
Two of the major developmental streams of Modern music are streams that originate in the 1920s: Twelve-Tone Music and the music of New Objectivity. These streams are generally seen as contrary developments in musical aesthetics and composition. Also seen as contrary are autonomy and function in music. Both of these supposedly "antagonistic" twosomes were uniquely unified in the late work of the German composer Hanning Schröder (1896-1987). While maintaining the emphasis on artistic and technical aspects of making music, on concerns for the audience, and on "Music for Use" (New Objectivity), Schröder combined this emphasis with the use of Schoenberg's and Webern's twelve-tone technique(s) freely, in that he constructed his twelve-tone rows in a way to achieve his aesthetic goals; among other features, he made use of tone row rotations for higher flexibility of vertical and horizontal music structures. At the same time, Schröder's initially autonomous music became functional - as music for film, pedagogical works, religious music, etc. - This paper provides detailed historical accounts of this "unification" of the two twosomes by focusing on influences on Schröder. Furthermore, an analytical approach is based on intra- and inter-disciplinary music analysis as it relates to music-theoretical, social, political, historical, and other developments. Summaries of these analytical findings will specifically show how aesthetic concepts are expressed with a specific compositional technique.
Dr. Nico Schüler is Professor of Music Theory and Musicology at Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas, USA. He holds degrees musicology and music theory. Dr. Schüler was the recipient of the 2003 Presidential Award for Excellence in Scholarly / Creative Activities as well as a finalist for the Presidential Award for Excellence in Teaching (2004) and for the Presidential Award for Excellence in Service (2004, 2005, 2008) at Texas State University. In 2008-2009, he was the Presidential Fellow at Texas State University. He was also the recipient of several major scholarships, grants, and fellowships. He was an invited speaker at national and international conferences and workshops in Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, England, The Netherlands, Lithuania, Switzerland, Slovenia, Serbia, Peru, South Korea, Japan, and throughout the United States and Canada. His main research interests are interdisciplinary aspects of modern music, methods and methodology of music research, computer applications in music, music theory pedagogy, as well as world music (especially selected aspects of West African and of Korean music). Dr. Schüler is the editor of the research book series Methodology of Music Research (New York: Peter Lang), the editor of the peer-reviewed journal South Central Music Bulletin, the author and / or editor of 18 books, and the author of more than 70 articles. He is also a contributor to the new editions of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians as well as of Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (MGG). Dr. Schüler is the Immediate Past President of the College Music Society's South Central Chapter and Vice President of the Texas Chapter of the National Association of Composers USA.
Traditional music as a 'high art'? Critical approach to the term 'traditional music'
Professionalization of 'folk' music idioms, as well as style and concept alterations of musicians who committed themselves to this particular music aesthetic is the main interest of the author of this paper in exploring current 'catchall' character of the term 'traditional' music. Musicians themselves, the media and even professional researchers often have different approaches towards the issue. Therefore a frequent labelling music as 'traditional' in an easy manner, is present in general public.
The author will examine exciting mechanisms of 'high art' music influence on 'traditional' music, following the example of 'high art', and eventually moving towards it.
Having in mind the complexity of classification as such, the paper will propose on of possible functional definitions of music by applying the concept to a concrete example of the so called "radio musicians", and their music interpretations recorded at Radio Belgrade (Serbia) from the second half of 20th century onwards. By analyzing historical, cultural and social aspects of establishing "folk music orchestras" and "radio singers" within a state broadcaster, this paper will question the adherence of the "stylized" music to the practices and values of a tradition, which is promoted verbally at all times.
In the light of commercialisation of music, the paper will, among other things, conclude the presence of an interesting phenomenon of reproduction of the like music ensembles in other countries around the world as well as the context and strategies of the performance (costumes, performance spaces, guest musicians etc.)
Milica Simic graduated Ethnomusicology BS from Belgrade Faculty of Music. Completed Sociology MA at Belgrade University Faculty of Philosophy with a thesis on new promotion strategies of folk music-inspired music on "My Space" social networking website. As of 2000, she has been active as a freelance broadcaster and music critic of folk music and popular music programmes/events at the Radio Belgrade 2 Music and Culture Department, covering local, regional and international music festivals. Main interests: new interpretations of folk music, minorities' music, folk music festivals' soundscapes.
Ideja absolutne glasbe v zgodovinskem kontekstu
Misel, da je glasba po svoji vsebini neodvisna in samostojna, je bila jasno izražena v Heglovih Predavanjih iz estetike. Sledeč Heglu, ki je umetnost pojmoval kot čutno pojavljanje ideje, glasba sicer lahko prikazuje in vzbuja afekte, vendar to ni niti njen namen niti ne njena prava vsebina. Resnična vsebina glasbe je po Heglu le človekova subjektivna notranjost, ki se manifestira preko tonov. Ta misel implicira, da glasba ni prikazovanje (mimesis) nečesa, kar je zunaj glasbe, pač pa samostojna in neodvisna dejavnost, ki je ozko povezana s človeško eksistenco. Heglove filozofske izpeljave imajo svoje zgodovinsko ozadje, pri čemer je treba opozoriti na dvoje: 1. Heglova misel o glasbi se ne nanaša na glasbo nasploh, pač pa na velika in genialna dela evropskih skladateljev. 2. V Heglovem času je bila vse bolj prisotna misel o velikem pomenu, ki ga imata za človeka kot posameznika umetnost in glasba. To misel je mogoče videti kot realno zgodovinsko ozadje, na osnovi katerega je Hegel izpeljal svojo filozofijo glasbe.
Jurij Snoj je študiral muzikologijo na Filozofski fakulteti v Ljubljani, kjer je leta 1988 doktoriral s temo o fragmentarno ohranjenih, v gotski notaciji pisanih koralnih rokopisih v Ljubljani. Deluje kot raziskovalec na Muzikološkem inštitutu Znanstvenoraziskovalnega centra SAZU. Študijsko se ukvarja s srednjeveškimi koralnimi rokopisi v srednjeevropskem prostoru in z vprašanji starejše (predvsem antične in srednjeveške) glasbene teorije. Med njegovimi zadnjimi publikacijami je faksimilna izdaja antifonala iz Kranja (Musicalia Danubiana, 23).
Yesterday's Art, Tomorrow's World
This study discusses the efforts of certain composers to create mass songs (A. Hába, K. Reiner, J. Stanislav, E. Schulhoff). The immediate impetus for this activity was the first international olympiad of revolutionary theaters (MORT), which took place in 1933 in Moscow.
Lubomír Spurný, musicologist, pedagogue, born 19 December 1965, Šternberk (near Olomouc). Studied 1980-87 at the P. J. Vejvanovsky Conservatory in Kroměříž (violin, graduation exam 1984). Later studied musicology and aesthetics at the Philosophical Faculty of Masaryk University in Brno (1988-93). Currently he is associate professor at that institution. His areas of research interest are aesthetics and theory of new music. He published two books, Heinrich Schenker - dávný neznámý (Heinrich Schenker - unknow for a long time, 2000) and Kapitoly z dějin evropské hudby (Chapters from the history of European music, 2001).
In-Between Nature and Culture: Notes on Music as Reference
In his book Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (2006), David Huron proposes that emotions evoked by expectation involve five functionally distinct response systems for music: reaction responses (which engage defensive reflexes); tension responses (where uncertainty leads to stress); prediction responses (which reward accurate prediction); imagination responses (which facilitate deferred gratification); and appraisal responses (which occur after conscious thought is engaged). These five response systems cause to reflect on the quandaries regarding epistemological approaches to music and are usually divided in a sense of oppositions between "natural-sciences-approach" and "soft-humanities-approach". The aim of this contribution is to encompass the epistemological differences brought about by each of the mentioned cognitive capacities on a case study of certain emotional state related to music.
Leon Stefanija graduated from the Faculty of Arts, Department of Musicology with the thesis Analytical Method of Allen Forte and its influence - Analysis of the Slavko Osterc Nonet (Analitična metoda Allena Fortea in njen domet ob analizi Noneta Slavka Osterca), for which he received the Prešeren Student Prize in 1995. In the same year he started working as a junior researcher at the Department of Musicology. In 1997 he received his master's degree with the thesis The Methods of Musical Analysis: Between the Idea and the Structure (Glasbeno-analitični nastavki: med idejo in strukturo), and in 2001 his doctor's degree with the thesis Understanding of "the New" and "the Old" in Slovenian Contemporary Music (Umevanje "starega" in "novega" v novejši slovenski glasbi). His work in musicology is focused on music analysis, research on contemporary Slovenian music and sociology of music.
Relativnost in funkcijska vrednost zgodovinopisnega interpretiranja glasbe na primeru novomeške Fundamenta
Namen referata bo prikazati v prvi vrsti relativnost, pa tudi nekatere možne smeri razmisleka o socioloških in ideoloških vidikih funkcionalnosti zgodovinskega opredeljevanja glasbenih ostalin. Prikaz bo temeljil na analizi treh različnih strokovno relevantnih pristopov k zgodovinski interpretaciji rokopisnega učbenika Fundamenta, ki ga hrani novomeški frančiškanski samostan in je najverjetneje nastal ok. leta 1770, kot zelo pripravnemu primeru za takšno interpretiranje glasbenih >artefaktov< iz preteklosti. Notni del učbenika je namreč mogoče obenem opredeliti v okvirih dveh različnih >sistemov< zgodovine glasbe kot referenc pri organiziranju naše lastne recepcije glasbene preteklosti. Prvi je nekoliko starejši, a še vedno precej široko apliciran model epohno-slogovne zgodovine glasbe s pojmom klasicizma kot osrednje kategorije tega sistema. Drugačno možnost zgodovinske interpretacije skladb v učbeniku ponuja približno pol stoletja mlajša strategija zgodovine glasbe kot skupka relativno posebnih glasbenih praks, ki je do epohno-slogovne strategije že v intenci kritična ter izhaja zlasti iz Foucaultove arheologije zgodovine in teorije diskurzivnih praks.
Tretji pristop je vsaj pogojno mogoče označiti za strukturalističnega. Ta si za cilj jemlje >dekodiranje< strukture različnih glasbenih mišljenj kot ključnega dejavnika pri konstituiranju posameznih del ter na splošno takšnih ali drugačnih z glasbo povezanih dogodkov oz. produktov v preteklosti - tudi glasbeno-teoretskih spisov.
Možnost teoretsko korektne aplikacije treh tudi v temeljih različnih načinov zgodovinske interpretacije enega in istega glasbenega >dogodka< iz preteklosti seveda logično ponuja na eni strani tezo o le relativni vrednosti vseh treh pristopov. Po drugi strani pa je v neki morda teoretsko manj abstraktni in bolj realni >implementaciji< vsakega od treh načinov, mogoče ugotavljati tudi zelo konkretne sociološke in ideološke implikacije, ki jih je zavzemanje za en, drug ali tretji >sistem< v omenjenih obdobjih vsebovalo oz. jih še vedno vsebuje.
Radovan Škrjanc (1966), akademski glasbenik - pianist in doktor muzikologije. Zaposlen kot klavirski pedagog na GŠ Ljubljana Vič-Rudnik in raziskovalec na Muzikološkem inštitutu ZRC SAZU. V zadnjem času se raziskovalno posvečam zlasti cerkveni in klavirski glasbi na Slovenskem v obdobju 18. in zgodnjega 19. stoletja .
Lidija Podlesnik Tomašikova
Plesni učitelji v Ljubljani v 19. stoletju
Deželna vlada v Ljubljani je v letu 1909 prvič dodelila koncesijo za poučevanja plesa slovenskemu plesnemu učitelju. Pred njim se je v Ljubljani zvrstilo vrsto plesnih učiteljev iz tujine, ki so se potegovali za delovno mesto deželnega plesnega učitelja; odprli so svoje plesne šole, si pridobili koncesije za poučevanje plesa in ostali v mestu dalj časa. Poleg njih pa so v Ljubljano za posamezne plesne tečaje ali plesne sezone redno prihajali tudi gostujoči plesni učitelji. Oglasi z najavo plesnega pouka v dnevnem časopisju nam razkrivajo občasno konkurenčno ponudbo, metode poučevanja posameznih učiteljev, oblike plesov, poučevanje novitet kot je bil šest-koračni valček, kot tudi ponudbe plesnih učiteljev za poučevanje in posredno večje zanimanje plesalcev za učenje nacionalnih plesov. Redki ohranjeni plesni redi so konkretna dokazila za izvedbe določenih družabnih plesov na javnih prireditvah, prvi natisnjeni plesni priročniki v slovenskem jeziku pa kažejo veliko zanimanje plesalcev za osvojitev plesnih pravil kot tudi trud posameznikov za širjenje ustreznega in v tujini pridobljenega plesnega znanja.
Lidija Podlesnik Tomášiková je prof. glasbe in univ. dipl. muzikologinja, od leta 1997 redno zaposlena kot bibliotekarka na Oddelku za muzikologijo Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Zadnjih deset let se intenzivno posveča izpopolnjevanju v izvajalski praksi plesov preteklih stoletij. Zaključuje specialistični študij v okviru Inštituta za historično plesno prakso (IHDP) v Gentu pod mentorstvom plesalca in koreografa Lievna Baerta. Pripravlja glasbeno-plesne projekte in delavnice v okviru KUD Cortesía, poučuje stilne plese na Akademiji za gledališče, radio, film in televizijo v Ljubljani in redno sodeluje na seminarjih stalnega strokovnega izobraževanja za pedagoge na Fakulteti za šport in Filozofski fakulteti v Ljubljani.
How Film Music becomes a Music Object
As a result of the author's extensive research and interest for music in the cinematography context in former Yugoslavia, this paper will propose one of the possible ideas for understanding the film music. Namely, the author argues that film music does not exist without the different types of the 'emancipation' processes, on which potential researchers insist. Primarily, some recognize the author, a 'film composer', as a creative spirit whose poetics affects the film's success. Others insist on 'film sound', pointing it out as an important element of a complex media such as film. Elaborating on the nature and quality of the abovementioned elements, the author of the paper will be mapping methodology of film music discourse. Through analyzing the possibilities of this particular issue, the author finds out that those complex processes of establishing 'film music' as a 'music object' is deeply related to methodology and disciplinary paradigms of traditional musicology and filmology: notion of a composer as creator, tendency to chose prominent canonized works, etc. Intriguing processes of 'film music' becoming a special type of 'music object', as well as basing and structuring the film music discourse on the boundaries of music and film studies will be examined from the aspects of a dominant narrative cinematography.
Maja Vasiljević graduated Musicology from Belgrade Faculty of Music with a paper on film music. After completing MA Sociology studies with the thesis on 'degenerate music' of the Third Reich at Belgrade University Faculty of Philosophy, she pursued her PhD studies in Sociology within the same institution and currently is a graduate teaching assistant, on courses: Sociology of everyday life and History of jazz. Actively engaged in music criticism as freelance music and culture editor at Radio Belgrade 2, she focuses on the problems of modern music, music in everyday life, performing practice and applying music in the film, which deals with the process of music listening. Also, her papers on film music and music analysis/reception presented at the international Musicology and Ethnomusicology conferences are published in different journals.
The change from cultural practice to aesthetical practice: Gregorian Chant as example
During the last decade one could observe a shift in musicology: music has been seen as a "cultural practice" and not only as an aesthetic practice. However, what exactly "cultural practice" means with regard to music was seldom explained and rarely an author has pondered about the relation between "cultural practice", aesthetic practice and the possible differences and contradictions of both. While a "cultural practice" has a cultural meaning the aesthetic practice has an aesthetic meaning - and one has to discuss whether the two meanings are compatible or not.
Gregorian Chant, which, in a certain sense, marks the beginning of the Western musical culture, can serve as an example for the transition from a "cultural practice" (in this case a liturgical practice) to an aesthetic practice which also means from an oral practice to a practice of writing music down. Describing this transition leads automatically to the question when "music history" in the proper sense has begun, or in other words: is a "cultural practice" the object of musicology?
Michael Walter is full professor of musicology a the department of musicology at the Karl Franzens-Universität Graz and head of the Department of Musicology, he is also head of the Center for Cultural Studies at the Faculty of Humanities. He studied musicology and history at the university of Marburg (Germany). After he had received his Ph.D. he was Postdoctoral Research Scholar of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, assistant professor at the Department of Social Research / University of Stuttgart (1989-93), associate professor at the Department of Musicology / University of Bochum, (1993-99) and Visiting Professor of Musicology at the University of Bayreuth (2000-01). Since 2007 he is also director-at-large of the International Musicological Society.
He has published articles and books on the history of opera, music history of the middle ages, Haydn's Symphonies and music in the Third Reich.
Autonomous Music, Social Function and the Darmstadt School
'It is self-evident that nothing concerning art is self-evident anymore, not its inner life, not its relation to the world, not even its right to exist.' Thus begins Adorno's Aesthetic Theory, highlighting one of the central problems for composers over the last sixty years: how can one create, understand and even justify music in the absence of established norms or criteria of judgment? In the same period, music can be found in an ever-increasing variety of contexts, due, primarily, to rapid developments in technology, changes in modes of distribution as well as the rise of new media. Provoked, in part, by these changes, various assumptions about the traditional conception of the musical work have been challenged, most notably the claims that the musical work is a fixed entity, completely determined in advance of its performance, and that the circumstances of its performance can be prescribed and controlled by the composer. In this paper I examine all of the above issues regarding musical meaning and social function specifically in relation to the composers associated with the Darmstadt School. The phenomenon of the Darmstadt School is especially intriguing as it has come to represent both the desire for a tabula rasa of the musical language and the continuity of the 'autonomous music' tradition. In particular, I explore the Darmstadt School's emphasis on the conception of composition as analogous to scientific research and the apparent wish to ensure the autonomy of music-making by rejecting social and commercial considerations. Throughout I draw on the theories of Adorno, particularly his notion of autonomous music as social critique, as well as examining the writings and interviews of key figures associated with Darmstadt, primarily Boulez and Stockhausen.
David Walters is an Assistant Professor of Music at Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey where he teaches course in theory, analysis and composition. His research specialisms lie in twentieth-century music history, analysis and aesthetics. In addition, he is a composer of works for both electro-acoustic and traditional forces, with a particular interest in writing music for film. He is currently preparing a book on Pierre Boulez's aesthetic theory.